The general complication associated with post surgical hair transplant treatment is of infection and excessive bleeding either in the donor or the recipient area. However in our research, we have found the condition has hit just 1.37% patients. To escape severe bleeding or catching of infections, patients should be screened for history of bleeding diathesis, for intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anti-coagulative agents, anabolic steroids, taking aspirin, Vitamin E and alcohol during the preoperative evaluation. Smoking and Topical minoxidil should be stopped at least 2 weeks before the transplant surgery to prevent post operative bleeding at either of the sites.
Infections of the scalp are very rare but have been known to report in less than 1% of patients after completion of the surgical transplant. This problem mainly occurs due to excessive crust formation on the scalp, poor hygiene, or pre-existing medical risk factors.
A recent study has also shown to have bacterial folliculitis in the donor site. The bacterium is reported to occur even after 8 months of surgery and was found in around 10.96% patients. There are various measures to be adopted for prevention of bacterial and infection control: Clean and fumigated operating room; use of sterilized tools and disposable instruments, antibiotic prophylaxis and donor area asepsis.
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Another complication seen after weeks or months after transplantation surgery is of sterile folliculitis in the recipient area. It is a frequent problem that occurs weeks or months after the hair restoration surgery. It was found in a study that 23.29% of patients get affected from this post-surgical issue. The actual causes of the problem are not clear. Theories include foreign body reactions, ingrown hair, epithelium logged into slit sites at the time of recipient site formation, and the idiopathic inherent properties of the host scalp. Complication associated with Sterile folliculitis is usually dealt by unroofing the cysts, oral antibiotics and warm compresses.
Postoperative edema is one of the most common problems caused after hair transplant and affects nearly 42.47% of patients. Swelling and Edema of eyelids or forehead is a common consequence of after hair transplant surgery, especially 3-7 days after the operation. In few cases, this edema is so extreme that patient is unable to open their eyes. This further causes melancholy and hindrance in returning back to routine life. There have been several methods to reduce the edema, which include both administration of steroids and physical methods. Oral Usage of steroids, adding steroid to the local anesthetic and/or intramuscular injection can calm the situation. Otherwise Physical methods such as being in semi-lay down position post operation, using adhesive tapes under hair line, firm headband, applying ice packs or packs of frozen peas. However, none of these ways has been found to be completely satisfactory.
Wide scars in the donor area are another possible complication after transplant. These scars are apparent in form of keloid scars, postoperative effluvium/shock loss, and donor site depletion, cross hatch scars, wounds, neuralgia, necrosis, hypoesthesia or hematoma.
Wide donor scar patients are followed by paresthesia and numbness in the donor area. This could be due to inaccurate donor harvesting such as, severe much tension during closure, too wide a strip, transaction of hair follicles, nerve supply and blood, bad location and inappropriate undermining. With present time’s large grafting sessions, more donor tissue is needed to fulfill surgical goals.
Hypopigmentation can happen in either the recipient or the donor areas after hair transplant procedure is completed. Recipient-site hypopigmentation is more frequent with larger slits, and can be truly troublesome when low graft fail to generate adequate hair for sufficiently camouflaging the scalp.
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Hiccups are prevalent in few patients after transplant surgery, which may be formed frequently after the procedure and last for about 2 – 7 days, because of the patient’s dorsal placement. Hiccups can be developed due to excessive air aspiration resultant to activation of diaphragmatic muscle movements by very vocal or overwhelmed patients. Hiccups were prevalent in 4.11% patients.
Poor growth of transplanted hair and patient’s grievances is a common problem after transplant. In spite of the surgeons’ best surgical tools and techniques, it is very hard to attribute the reason for limited growth. Not to neglect the significance of good operative and postoperative care, in-depth assessment of the individual stages in the operating room right from harvesting of donor tissue, through graft dissection, to the plantation stage of grafts, usually exposes important insights into the problem.
Some patients can also have limited hair growth in the central part of the scalp versus other peripheral regions because of the hypovascularization in the central portion. The disappointing response may also be a resultant of patient natural hair growth characteristics, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking. As per a study demonstration, we found that 60% patients accounted for less than 50% growth of the transplanted hair subjectively, with 27.4% of them reported to have less than 25% growth of the transplanted hair.
A very unpredicted and rare post operative problem like drug reaction to cefotaxime leading to scarring, necrosis and bleaching of hair due to enough application of hydrogen peroxide is also observed in HRS.
This study focuses on the kinds and frequency of problems that have and may occur after a hair transplant or hair restoration surgical proves. Complications in post hair transplant are quite less, but the doctors must always be vigilant because unpredicted harmful events can always happen. By way of preoperative evaluation, expert surgical skills, and optimal management of any kind of problem that may surface in or after the surgery will result to a satisfactory outcome.
These are the complications experienced by people after their hair transplant surgical process. However, it would be subjective to say that these problems will be prevalent in all cases, as it literally depends on person to person and or other mentioned factors. Otherwise a Realistic Expectation from a Hair Transplant Procedure is of a surgical process that covers your partial or full baldness, improves your look and provides your hair with a perfectly original look.
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